Three new genera, Atlantocarpus, Lambertiflora and Mugideiriflora, are described from the Early Cretaceous of North America and Portugal based on floral structures with multicarpellate and apocarpous gynoecia that have been studied using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy. Lambertiflora and Mugideiriflora have numerous perianth parts in several series, as well as many stamens and many carpels borne on a short conical receptacle. Atlantocarpus has many carpels arranged spirally on an elongated receptacle. Perianth and stamens are not preserved in Atlantocarpus, but scars of two sizes at the base of the receptacle indicate the presence of several series of tepals and stamens. Phylogenetic assessment of the three new genera indicates close relationships with members of extant Austrobaileyales, which is also favoured by the apparently ascidiate carpels of Atlantocarpus. However, the phylogenetic signal is not strong and the fossils also share many features with magnoliid angiosperms. Fully secure resolution of their relationships is hampered by lack of information of critical floral features in the fossil material, the constellation of likely plesiomorphic characters that they exhibit, and inadequate knowledge of character homologies and character evolution among extant taxa. There is also the broader concern about whether phylogenetic patterns can be reliably inferred for the earliest phases of angiosperm evolution based solely on a depauperate assemblage of extant taxa given extensive extinction over the last 100 million years. The new genera add to growing evidence of diverse extinct angiosperms with multiparted flowers during the Early Cretaceous that have a variety of relationships to extant ANA-grade angiosperms and magnoliids.
apocarpous, Cretaceous, early angiosperms, fossil flowers, multiparted, Potomac Group, SRXTM, synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy
An Early Cretaceous mesofossil flora is described from the lower part of the Almargem Formation (late Barremian-early Aptian) from Torres Vedras (NE of Forte da Forca), Portugal. The flora is the oldest mesofossil flora containing angiosperm remains to be described in detail based on well-preserved flower, fruit and seed remains. In addition to angiosperms, the mesofossil flora also includes megaspores, sporangia and tiny leaves of spore-bearing plants. There are also twigs, cone fragments and seeds of conifers and seeds assigned to the BEG group. In total about 100 species have been distinguished. Most abundant in terms of plant fragments identified, are spore-bearing plants and conifers. Although only about 18 % of the specimens can be attributed to angiosperms, angiosperm diversity is unexpected high considering the age of the flora. Angiosperms account for about 62 % of all species recognized. Angiosperm diversity is mainly at the level of ANA-grade angiosperms, eumagnoliids and in a few cases early diverging lineages of monocots. Eudicots are subordinate. Twenty new genera and 28 new species of angiosperms are established Anaspermum operculatum gen. et sp. nov., Appofructus nudus gen. et sp. nov., Appomattoxia minuta sp. nov., Burgeria striata gen. et sp. nov., Canrightia elongata sp. nov., Choffaticarpus compactus gen. et sp. nov., Dejaxia brevicolpites gen. et sp. nov., Dinisia portugallica gen. et sp. nov., Eckhartia brevicolumella gen. et sp. nov., Eckhartia longicolumella sp. nov., Eckhartia intermedia sp. nov., Eckhartianthus lusitanicus gen. et sp. nov., Eckhartiopsis parva gen. et sp. nov., Gastonispermum antiquum sp. nov., Goczania rugosa gen. et sp. nov., Goczania inaequalis sp. nov., Goczania punctata sp. nov., Ibrahimia verminculata gen. et sp. nov., Juhaszia portugallica gen. et sp. nov., Kempia longicolpites gen. et sp. nov., Kvacekispermum costatum sp. nov., Mcdougallia irregularis gen. et sp. nov., Nicholsia brevicolpites gen. et sp. nov., Piercipollis simplex gen. et sp. nov., Reyanthus lusitanicus gen. et sp. nov., Samylinaea punctata gen. et sp. nov., Teebacia hughesii gen. et sp. nov., Vedresia elliptica gen. et sp. nov.). Comparison with results of a palynological study from the same horizon that yielded the mesofossil flora shows a marked underestimation of angiosperm diversity in the palynoflora, a pattern that has also been recognized elsewhere.
early eudicots, fossil flowers, fossil seeds, fossil megaspores, fossil stamens, mesofossil flora, Sergipea, synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), tricolpate pollen